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Definitions and Explanations

Learning the ""lingo" is often the first order of business whether it is a new land, new industry, a sport that you are not familiar with, or as is the case with CohBar, the tiny bits and pieces of the human body and its workings. CohBar Inc's world is the human genome and it certainly uses "lingo" unlike what most of us encounter in our every day living. The information included on this page is definitely not exhaustive on the subject but hopefully will bring a helpful degree of understanding to the reader.

We encourage you to feedback (here) if you would like additional definitions or explanations. We we will endeavour to communicate responses directly to you, and we will add the new information to this page.

Clinically Relevant Therapeutics

The potential to address a broad range of age-related diseases, including obesity, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), type-2 diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

Therapeutic Source – The Mitochondria, a Central Role in Metabolism

  • Mitochondria – the powerhouse of the cell produce energy (ATP), regulate cellular metabolism, and have their own genome – mtDNA
  • mtDNA – encodes biologically active peptides that have been conserved through human evolution.
  • General – CohBar has discovered 65+ biologically active mitochondrial-derived peptides. In preclinical disease models, these peptides’ potential therapeutic effects include metabolic regulation and neuro-protective, cyto-protective and anti-inflammatory activity 


  • Peptides are within the mitochondrial genome which regulates metabolism and cell death, and whose biological activity declines with age.
  • A peptide is a short chain of amino acids. The amino acids in a peptide are connected to one another in a sequence by bonds called peptide bonds. Typically, peptides are distinguished from proteins by their shorter length, although the cut-off number of amino acids for defining a peptide and protein can be arbitrary. Peptides are generally considered to be short chains of two or more amino acids. Meanwhile, proteins are long molecules made up of multiple peptide subunits, and are also known as polypeptides. Proteins can be digested by enzymes (other proteins) into short peptide fragments. Among cells, peptides can perform biological functions. For example, some peptides act as hormones, which are molecules that when released from cells affect other areas of the body.

Mitochondria Based Therapeutics (MBTs) (the plural form of mitochondrion)

An emerging class of drugs for the treatment of age-related diseases.

From The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • n. A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism, including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy. Also called chondriosome.
  • At the core of the process of energy creation is a tiny structure within the cell called the mitochondrion—this is the body’s energy factory.
  • The mitochondrion is a tiny, membrane-enclosed "power plant" which generates the cell's supply of chemical energy (ATP).
  • Any of various round or long cellular organelles of most eukaryotes that are found outside the nucleus, produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration, and are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes (Merriam-Webster)
  •  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion for a difficult to understand, but presumably complete description.

CohBar Clinical Development Program

  • CB4209 and CB4211 are optimized analogs from CohBar’s MOTS-c program which have demonstrated a role in regulating metabolism as well as therapeutic potential in preclinical models for obesity and NASH, with additional investigation ongoing to determine therapeutic potential as an adjunct for T2D
  • CohBar’s expanding family of over 65 peptides, including licensed compounds SHLP6 and SHLP2, are being evaluated for potential to treat wide range of age- related diseases, both for internal development and partnership opportunities 

Major Age-Related Diseases Share Common Biology of Metabolic Dysfunction

 - CohBar Inc. immediate focus

  • Obesity: associated with T2D, coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension and cancer, over 90% of obese adults may have non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
  • NASH: as many as 12% of US adults may have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), 70-90% of NASH sufferers are morbidly obese or have type 2 diabetes (T2D)
  • Pre-diabetes/Diabetes: 9% of US adult population estimated to have T2D, obesity and age are major risk factors 

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use.

  • Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most extreme form of NAFLD. NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in developed countries.
  • NAFLD is related to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome and may respond to treatments originally developed for other insulin-resistant states (e.g. diabetes mellitus type 2) such as weight loss, metformin, and thiazolidinedione. Up to 80% of obese people have the disease.[5]
  • NASH is regarded as a major cause of cirrhosis of the liver of unknown cause.[1]Most people have a good outcome if the condition is caught in its early stages.[6]
  • About 12 to 25% of people in the United States have NAFLD, while NASH affects between 2 and 5% of people in the United States.

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most extreme form of NAFLD.[1] NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in developed countries.[2][3]
  • Most people with NAFLD have few or no symptoms. Patients may complain of fatigue, malaise, and dull right-upper-quadrant abdominal discomfort. Mild jaundice may be noticed, although this is rare. More commonly NAFLD is diagnosed following abnormal liver function tests during routine blood tests. By definition, alcohol consumption of over 20 g/day (about 25 ml/day of net ethanol) excludes the condition.[4]
  • NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (obesity, combined hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus (type II), and high blood pressure).[4][1]